2019-02-15

Best English Grammar Guide, 20 Grammar Rules and Grammar Tips - mediainggris.com


Best English Grammar Guide, 20 Grammar Rules and Grammar Tips - mediainggris.com
20 Grammar rules/tips - mediainggris.com









Is Grammar Important?

Everyone who learns English, from children, students, adults, or English teachers, one of the least important in English is Grammar, because Grammar is the foundation of English. All languages ​​have their own rules, in English it is called Grammar. But do you know what Grammar is? What have you learned from Grammar?
An expert or a Linguistic expert does not need to ask about what is Grammar, but for ordinary people, they must wonder what it is Grammar, we keep continue to learn how to speak and write in English without knowing what is in accordance with Grammar.
Grammar is important because grammar provides information that helps the readers to understand. The grammar delivered has the right meaning from the author to the audience. Eliminate grammatical errors from your writing, and give gifts to readers with clear communication.

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The History of Grammar.

Vedic Sanskrit is the earliest language known to the world. The grammatical rules were formulated by Indra, Chandra, etc., but the modern systematic grammar, of Sanskrit, originated in Iron Age India, with Yaska (6th century BC), Pāṇini (6-5th century BC) and his commentators Pingala (c. 200 BC), Katyayana, and Patanjali (2nd century BC). Tolkāppiyam, the earliest Tamil grammar, is mostly dated to before the 5th century AD. The Babylonians also made some early attempts at language description.
In the West, grammar emerged as a discipline in Hellenism from the 3rd century BC forward with authors like Rhyanus and Aristarchus of Samothrace. The oldest known grammar handbook is the Art of Grammar (Τέχνη Γραμματική), a succinct guide to speaking and writing clearly and effectively, written by the ancient Greek scholar Dionysius Thrax (c. 170–c.90 BC), a student of Aristarchus of Samothrace who established a school on the Greek island of Rhodes. Dionysius Thrax's grammar book remained the primary grammar textbook for Greek schoolboys until as late as the twelfth century AD. The Romans based their grammatical writings on it and its basic format remains the basis for grammar guides in many languages even today. Latin grammar developed by following Greek models from the 1st century BC, due to the work of authors such as Orbilius Pupillus, Remmius Palaemon, Marcus Valerius Probus, Verrius Flaccus, and Aemilius Asper.
A grammar of Irish originated in the 7th century with the Auraicept na n-Éces. Arabic grammar emerged with Abu al-Aswad al-Du'ali in the 7th century. The first treatises on Hebrew grammar appeared in the High Middle Ages, in the context of Mishnah (exegesis of the Hebrew Bible). The Karaite tradition originated in Abbasid Baghdad. The Diqduq (10th century) is one of the earliest grammatical commentaries on the Hebrew Bible. Ibn Barun in the 12th century compares the Hebrew language with Arabic in the Islamic grammatical tradition.
Belonging to the trivium of the seven liberal arts, grammar was taught as a core discipline throughout the Middle Ages, following the influence of authors from Late Antiquity, such as Priscian. Treatment of vernaculars began gradually during the High Middle Ages, with isolated works such as the First Grammatical Treatise, but became influential only in the Renaissance and Baroque periods. In 1486, Antonio de Nebrija published Las introduciones Latinas contrapuesto el romance al Latin, and the first Spanish grammar, Gramática de la lengua castellana, in 1492. During the 16th-century Italian Renaissance, the Questione della lingua was the discussion on the status and ideal form of the Italian language, initiated by Dante's de vulgari eloquentia (Pietro Bembo, Prose della volgar lingua Venice 1525). The first grammar of Slovene language was written in 1583 by Adam Bohorič.
Grammars of non-European languages began to be compiled for the purposes of evangelization and Bible translation from the 16th century onward, such as Grammatica o Arte de la Lengua General de los Indios de los Reynos del Perú (1560), and a Quechua grammar by Fray Domingo de Santo Tomás.
From the latter part of the 18th century, grammar came to be understood as a subfield of the emerging discipline of modern linguistics. The Deutsche Grammatik of the Jacob Grimmwas first published in the 1810s. The Comparative Grammar of Franz Bopp, the starting point of modern comparative linguistics, came out in 1833.
Prescriptive grammar is taught in primary and secondary school. The term "grammar school" historically refers to a school (attached to a cathedral or monastery) teaching Latin grammar to future priests and monks. In its earliest form, "grammar school" referred to a school that taught students to read, scan, interpret, and declaim Greek and Latin poets (including Homer, Virgil, Euripides, and others). These should not be confused with the related, albeit distinct, modern British grammar schools.
A standard language is a particular dialect of a language that is promoted above other dialects in writing, education, and broadly speaking in the public sphere; it contrasts with vernacular dialects, which may be the objects of study in descriptive grammar but which are rarely taught prescriptively. The standardized "first language" taught in primary education may be subject to political controversy, because it may sometimes establish a standard defining nationality or ethnicity.


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English Grammar, Degrees of Comparison (Positive Degree, Comparative Degree, and Superlative Degree)

What is Grammar?

“Grammar explains the forms and structure of words (called morphology) and how they are arranged in sentences (called syntax). In other words, grammar provides the rules for common use of both spoken and written language so we can more easily understand each other.”

3 basics English grammar;
Etymology (Eight Parts of Speech)
Orthography, spelling system (letters, words and syllables)
Syntax, the study of the arrangement of words and phrases to create well-formed sentences in a language.

20 English Grammar Rules

Here are 20 simple rules and tips to help you avoid mistakes in English grammar. You can use these rules in your daily conversation or in written.
1.
The order of a basic positive sentence is Subject-Verb-Object. (Negative and question sentences may have a different order.)
A positive sentence (PS) tells you that something is so. A sentence that tells you something is not so is called a negative sentence (NS). It contains a negative word like not, never, no, no one, nobody, none, or a negative verb like isn’t or can’t or won’t.
  • Handy married Heni.
  • They were driving their car.
2.
A sentence starts with a capital letter and ends with a period/full stop, a question mark or an exclamation mark.
  • The tiger sat on the chair.
  • Where do you go?
  • My daughter is very clever!
3.
Every sentence must have a subject and a verb. An object is optional. Note that an imperative sentence may have a verb only, but the subject is understood.
  • Handy drives.
  • Handy drives motorcycle.
  • Read! (ie You read!)
Note.
Imperative sentences are used to issue a command or instruction, make a request, or offer advice. Basically, they tell people what to do. Imperative sentences usually end with a period but can occasionally end with an exclamation point. These sentences are sometimes referred to as directives because they provide direction to whomever is being addressed.
4.
The subject and verb must agree in number, a singular subject needs a singular verb and a plural subject needs a plural verb.
  • Handy works in Bandung. (Handy is singular subject)
  • That cat eats twice a day. (cat is singular subject)
  • Handy and Heni work in Bandung.
  • Most student study in the class.
5.
When two singular subjects are connected by “or, use a singular verb. The same is true for “either/or and “neither/nor.
  • Handy or Heni is coming tonight. Not (Handy or Heni are coming tonight.)
  • Either coffee or tea is fine.
  • Neither John nor Mary was late.
6.
Adjectives usually come before a noun (except when a verb separates the adjective from the noun).
  • I have a big cat.
  • She married a handsome Indonesian man.
  • (Her husband is rich.) not (her husband rich) => (her rich husband)
7.
When using two or more adjectives together, the usual order is opinion-adjective + fact-adjective + noun. (There are some additional rules for the order of fact adjectives.)
  • I saw a nice Jogja Batik.
8.
Use collective nouns (e.g. committee, company, board of directors) as singular OR plural. In British a collective noun is usually treated as plural, needing a plural verb and pronoun. In American a collective noun is often treated as singular, needing a singular verb and pronoun.
  • The committee are having sandwiches for lunch. Then they will go to London. (typically British)
  • The BBC have changed their logo. (typically British)
  • My family likes going to the zoo. (typically American)
  • CNN has changed its logo. (typically American)
9.
The words “its and “it's are two different words with different meanings.
  • The dog has hurt its leg.
  • He says it's (it is) two o'clock.
10.
The words “your and “you're are two different words with different meanings.
  • Here is your coffee.
  • You're (you are) looking good.
11.
The words “there, “their and “they're are three different words with different meanings.
  • There was nobody at the party.
  • I saw their new car.
  • Do you think they're (they are) happy?
12.
The contraction “he's can mean “he is OR “he has. Similarly, “she's can mean “she is OR “she has, and “it's can mean “it is OR “it has, and “Handy'scan mean “Handy is OR “Handy has.
  • He is working => He is working.
  • He has finished => He has finished.
  • She is here => She is here.
  • She has left => She has left.
  • Handy is married => Handy is married.
  • Handy has met his wife => Handy has met his wife.
13.
The contraction “he'd” can mean “he had OR “he would. Similarly, “they'dcan mean “they had OR “they would.
  • He’d eaten when I arrived. (He had eaten when I arrived.)
  • He’d eat more if possible. (He would eat more if possible.)
  • They’d already finished. (They had already finished.)
  • They’d come if they could. (They would come if they could.)
14.
Write a proper noun with an initial capital letter. A proper noun is a "name" of something, for example Handy, Heni, Russia, China, British Broadcasting Corporation, English.
  • We have written to Heni.
  • Is Indonesia in Asia?
  • Do you speak English?
15.
Write proper adjectives with an initial capital letter. Proper adjectives are made from proper nouns, for example Germany → German, Orwell → Orwellian, Machiavelli → Machiavellian.
  • Jakarta is an Indonesia town.
  • Who is the Indonesian president?
16.
Use the indefinite article “a/an for countable nouns in general. Use the definite article “the for specific countable nouns and all uncountable nouns.
  • I saw a bird and a butterfly in the sky. The bird was blue and the butterfly was black.
17.
Use the indefinite article “a with words beginning with a consonant sound. Use the indefinite article “an with words beginning with a vowel sound.
  • a cat, a game of soccer, a human endeavour, a Frenchman, a university (yu-ni-ver-si-ty)
  • an apple, an easy job, an interesting storyan old man, an umbella, an honorable man (on-o-ra-ble)
18.
Use many or few with countable nouns. Use much/a lot or little for uncountable nouns.
  • How many rupiahs do you have?
  • How much money do you have?
  • There are a few cars outside.
  • There is little traffic on the roads.
19.
To show possession (who is the owner of something) use an apostrophe (‘) + s for singular owners, and s + apostrophe (‘) for plural owners.
  • The boy's cat. (one boy)
  • The boys' cat. (two or more boys)
20.
In general, use the active voice (Cats eat fish) in preference to the passive voice (Fish are eaten by cats).
  • We use active in preference to passive.
  • Active is used in preference to passive.



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