2019-02-18

Best English Grammar Guide, The Usage of 14 Commonly Punctuation Marks - mediainggris.com


Why we must use punctuation marks properly?
Becoming familiar with the basic punctuation marks in the English language will allow you to express yourself better in your writing. Punctuation marks will also make your sentences clearer and more understandable to the reader.
Following their correct usage will make your writing easier to read and more appealing.
There are 14 punctuation marks that are commonly used in English grammar. 



Sentence Endings
Best English Grammar Guide, The Usage of 14 Commonly Punctuation Marks - mediainggris.com

Three of the fourteen punctuation marks are appropriate for use as sentence endings. They are the period ".", question mark "?", and exclamation point "!".

1. the period
In American English the period / in British English full stop (.) is placed at the end of declarative sentences, statements thought to be complete and after many abbreviations.
As a sentence ender
Heni and Handy went to the traditional market.

After an abbreviation
Handy Jr., Mr., Ms., I was born on Aug. 6, 1989.

2. question mark
Use a question mark (?) to indicate a direct question when placed at the end of a sentence.
When did Heni leave from the traditional market?

3. exclamation point
The exclamation point (AmE) / The Exclamation mark (BrE) The(!) is used when a person wants to express a sudden outcry or add emphasis. 

Sudden outcry
"Oh my God!" screamed Heni.
To emphasize a point
His behaviors make me angry!


Comma, Semicolon and Colon
Best English Grammar Guide, The Usage of 14 Commonly Punctuation Marks - mediainggris.com

The comma, semicolon and colon are often misused because they all can indicate a pause in a series.

 4. Comma (,)
The comma is used to show a separation of ideas or elements within the structure of a sentence. Additionally, it is used in numbers, dates and letter writing after the salutation and closing.

Direct address
Thanks for all your time, Sulivan.

Separation of two complete sentences
We went to the school, and then we went to library.

Separating lists or elements within sentences
Heni wanted the black, green, and blue dress.

5. Semicolon (;)
The semicolon (;) is used to connect independent clauses. It shows a closer relationship between the clauses than a period would show.

Handy was hurt; he knew Heni only said it to upset him.

6. Colon (:)
A colon (:) has three main uses. 
The first is after a word introducing a quotation, an explanation, an example, or a series.
He was planning to study four subjects: politics, philosophy, sociology and economics.
The second is between independent clauses, when the second explains the first, similar to a semicolon:
I didn't have time to get changed: I was already late.
The third use of a colon is for emphasis:
There was one thing she loved more than any other: her dog.

Dash and the Hyphen


Best English Grammar Guide, The Usage of 14 Commonly Punctuation Marks - mediainggris.com


7. Dash
Two other common punctuation marks are the dash and hyphen. These marks are often confused with each other due to their appearance but they are very different.
A dash is used to separate words into statements. There are two common types of dashes: en dash and em dash.
Best English Grammar Guide, The Usage of 14 Commonly Punctuation Marks - mediainggris.com
En dash: Slightly wider than a hyphen, the en dash is a symbol (-) that is used in writing or printing to indicate a range or connections and differentiation, such as 1800-1945 or Jakarta-Bandung trains.

Em dash: Twice as long as the en dash, the em dash can be used in place of a comma, parenthesis, or colon to enhance readability or emphasize the conclusion of a sentence. 
For example, She gave him her answer  No!
Note. Whether you put spaces around the em dash or not is a style choice. Just be consistent.

8. Hyphen 
A hyphen is used to join two or more words together into a compound term and is not separated by spaces. 
For example, part-time, back-to-back, well-known.

Brackets, Braces and Parentheses
Best English Grammar Guide, The Usage of 14 Commonly Punctuation Marks - mediainggris.com

Brackets, braces and parentheses are symbols used to contain words that are a further explanation or are considered a group.

9. Brackets
Brackets (AmE) / Square Brackets (BrE) are the squared off notations ([]) used for technical explanations or to clarify meaning. If you remove the information in the brackets, the sentence will still make sense.
He [Mr. Jones] was the last person seen at the house.

10. Braces
Braces ({}) are used to contain two or more lines of text or listed items to show that they are considered as a unit. They are not commonplace in most writing, but can be seen in computer programming to show what should be contained within the same lines. They can also be used in mathematical expressions. For example, 2{1+[23-3]}=x.

11. Parentheses
Parentheses (AmE) / Brackets (BrE) () ) are curved notations used to contain further thoughts or qualifying remarks. However, parentheses can be replaced by commas without changing the meaning in most cases.
John and Jane (who were actually half brother and sister) both have red hair.

Apostrophe, Quotation Marks and Ellipsis
Best English Grammar Guide, The Usage of 14 Commonly Punctuation Marks - mediainggris.com

The final three punctuation forms in English grammar are the apostrophe, quotation marks and ellipsis. Unlike previously mentioned grammatical marks, they are not related to one another in any form.

12. Apostrophe
An apostrophe (') is used to indicate the omission of a letter or letters from a word, the possessive case, or the plurals of lowercase letters.Examples of the apostrophe in use include:
Omission of letters from a word 
I've seen that car several times. It wasn't the only car in this neighborhood.

Possessive case
Heni's car bit the neighbor.

Plural for lowercase letters
Six people were told to mind their p's and q's.

It should be noted that, according to Purdue University, some teachers and editors enlarge the scope of the use of apostrophe, and prefer their use on symbols (&'s), numbers (7's) and capitalized letters (Q&A's), even though they are not necessary.

12. Quotations marks 
Quotations marks (" ") are a pair of punctuation marks used primarily to mark the beginning and end of a passage attributed to another and repeated word for word. They are also used to indicate meanings and to indicate the unusual or dubious status of a word.

"Don't go outside," she said.
Single quotation marks (' ') are used most frequently for quotes within quotes.

Marie told the teacher, "I saw Marc at the playground, and he said to me 'Bill started the fight,' and I believed him."

14. Ellipsis
The ellipsis is most commonly represented by three periods (. . . ) although it is occasionally demonstrated with three asterisks (***). The ellipsis is used in writing or printing to indicate an omission, especially of letters or words. Ellipses are frequently used within quotations to jump from one phrase to another, omitting unnecessary words that do not interfere with the meaning. Students writing research papers or newspapers quoting parts of speeches will often employ ellipsis to avoid copying lengthy text that is not needed.

Omission of words: She began to count, "One, two, three, four" until she got to 10, then went to find him.

Within a quotation: When Newton stated, "An object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion..." he developed the law of motion.

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